Key Terms

ANCHOR INSTITUTION

Anchor institutions are nonprofit or public institutions that are firmly rooted in their locales, including hospitals, universities, local governments, and utilities. These institutions often have a social or charitable purpose, and unlike for-profit corporations that can relocate, are place-based and tend to stay put. As such, they have a vested self-interest in helping to ensure that the communities in which they are based are safe, vibrant, healthy, and stable.1See Tyler Norris and Ted Howard, Can Hospitals Heal America’s Communities? “All in for Mission” is the Emerging Model for Impact (Takoma Park, MD: The Democracy Collaborative, 2015), 8.

ANCHOR MISSION

A commitment to intentionally apply an institution’s long-term, place-based economic power and human capital in partnership with community to mutually benefit the long-term well-being of both.2See Tyler Norris and Ted Howard, Can Hospitals Heal America’s Communities? “All in for Mission” is the Emerging Model for Impact (Takoma Park, MD: The Democracy Collaborative, 2015), 7.

COMMUNITY BENEFIT

Activities of hospitals and health systems that contribute to the health and well-being of their surrounding community. Non-profit hospitals and health systems must report on their community benefit activities in order to maintain their federal tax-exempt status. Traditionally, community benefit reporting has included free and discounted care, unreimbursed care, community health improvement efforts, efforts to expand access to care, training for health professionals, and research. In 2011, the IRS issued guidance that “community building activities” also counted as community benefit. Defined as hospital activities that foster health improvement through physical and environmental improvements, community capacity building, and economic development, this expanded the range of community benefit activities to include sectors such as housing and workforce development.3For further definitions and information about Community Benefit, refer to: “Jargon Buster,” Build Healthy Places Network, accessed August 2016 www.buildhealthyplaces.org/jargon-buster/; and “What are hospital community benefits?” (Baltimore, MD: The Hilltop Institute, 2013), accessed August 2016, www.hilltopinstitute.org/publications/WhatAreHCBsTwoPager-February2013.pdf.

COMMUNITY HEALTH NEEDS ASSESSMENT (CHNA)

A research process non-profit hospitals must implement as part of their community-benefit reporting. Instituted by the Affordable Care Act of 2010, CHNAs must be completed by hospitals and health systems every three years and identify the most pressing community health concerns. An implementation plan must then be developed to address identified community health needs. CHNAs and the resulting implementation plans are publicly reported, and subject to review by the IRS.4For further definitions and Community Health Needs Assessments, refer to: “Jargon Buster,” Build Healthy Places Network, accessed August 2016, www.buildhealthyplaces.org/jargon-buster/.

COMMUNITY WEALTH BUILDING

A systems approach to economic development that creates an inclusive, sustainable economy built on locally rooted and broadly held ownership. Community wealth building calls for developing place-based assets of many kinds, working collaboratively, tapping large sources of demand, and fostering economic institutions and ecosystems of support for enterprises rooted in community.5See Marjorie Kelly and Sarah McKinley, Cities Building Community Wealth (Takoma Park, MD: The Democracy Collaborative, 2015), 16.

HEALTH & HEALTH EQUITY

More than just the absence of illness, these toolkits utilize the World Health Organization’s definition of health, “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Health equity refers to the notion that all people should be able to achieve their highest level of health, regardless of their race, gender, class, sexual orientation, or other identities. Achieving health equity requires addressing the systemic factors shaping the social determinants of health.6Health and health equity are defined by The Build Healthy Places Network, which utilizes definitions from the World Health Organization. For more information, see: “Jargon Buster,” Build Healthy Places Network, accessed August 2016, www.buildhealthyplaces.org/jargon-buster/; and “WHO definition of Health,” World Health Organization, accessed August 2016, www.who.int/about/definition/en/print.html. For further definitions of health equity, see “Glossary of Terms,” National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities, Office of Minority Health, accessed August 2016, minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=1&lvlid=34.

SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH

A complex of social, economic, and environmental factors that drive health outcomes. The World Health Organization defines the social determinants of health as “the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age.” They represent the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life that drive health outcomes, such as inequality, social mobility, community stability, and the quality of civic life. Sometimes referred to as “upstream” determinants, research indicates that 40 percent of the factors that contribute to health are social and economic.7See “Social Determinants of Health,” World Health Organization, accessed April 2015, www.who.int/social_determinants/en/; Tyler Norris and Ted Howard, Can Hospitals Heal America’s Communities? “All in for Mission” is the Emerging Model for Impact (Takoma Park, MD: The Democracy Collaborative, 2015; and “County Health Rankings & Roadmaps,” University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, accessed September 2015, www.countyhealthrankings.org/Our-Approach.

WORKFORCE INTERMEDIARY

A workforce intermediary is an organization that helps connect residents to jobs through training, access to employment opportunities, and other wrap-around support. They can be public agencies, non-profits focused on job placement, community-based organizations focusing on reaching specific populations-such as re-entry or refugee communities-educational and training organizations, union apprenticeship programs, or other workforce organizations.8See Maureen Conway and Robert P. Giloth, eds., Connecting People to Work: Workforce Intermediaries and Sector Strategies (Washington DC: Aspen Institute, April 2014), 5.

 

How to use this toolkit

This toolkit offers a guide for how to leverage hiring practices to advance inclusive, local job creation and career development for communities experiencing the greatest health and wealth disparities.

References   [ + ]

1. See Tyler Norris and Ted Howard, Can Hospitals Heal America’s Communities? “All in for Mission” is the Emerging Model for Impact (Takoma Park, MD: The Democracy Collaborative, 2015), 8.
2. See Tyler Norris and Ted Howard, Can Hospitals Heal America’s Communities? “All in for Mission” is the Emerging Model for Impact (Takoma Park, MD: The Democracy Collaborative, 2015), 7.
3. For further definitions and information about Community Benefit, refer to: “Jargon Buster,” Build Healthy Places Network, accessed August 2016 www.buildhealthyplaces.org/jargon-buster/; and “What are hospital community benefits?” (Baltimore, MD: The Hilltop Institute, 2013), accessed August 2016, www.hilltopinstitute.org/publications/WhatAreHCBsTwoPager-February2013.pdf.
4. For further definitions and Community Health Needs Assessments, refer to: “Jargon Buster,” Build Healthy Places Network, accessed August 2016, www.buildhealthyplaces.org/jargon-buster/.
5. See Marjorie Kelly and Sarah McKinley, Cities Building Community Wealth (Takoma Park, MD: The Democracy Collaborative, 2015), 16.
6. Health and health equity are defined by The Build Healthy Places Network, which utilizes definitions from the World Health Organization. For more information, see: “Jargon Buster,” Build Healthy Places Network, accessed August 2016, www.buildhealthyplaces.org/jargon-buster/; and “WHO definition of Health,” World Health Organization, accessed August 2016, www.who.int/about/definition/en/print.html. For further definitions of health equity, see “Glossary of Terms,” National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities, Office of Minority Health, accessed August 2016, minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=1&lvlid=34.
7. See “Social Determinants of Health,” World Health Organization, accessed April 2015, www.who.int/social_determinants/en/; Tyler Norris and Ted Howard, Can Hospitals Heal America’s Communities? “All in for Mission” is the Emerging Model for Impact (Takoma Park, MD: The Democracy Collaborative, 2015; and “County Health Rankings & Roadmaps,” University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, accessed September 2015, www.countyhealthrankings.org/Our-Approach.
8. See Maureen Conway and Robert P. Giloth, eds., Connecting People to Work: Workforce Intermediaries and Sector Strategies (Washington DC: Aspen Institute, April 2014), 5.