- Partner with a workforce intermediary
- Utilize a cohort training model focused on specific positions
- Develop a paid internship program with pathways to hire
Partnerships with workforce intermediaries
Identifying a workforce intermediary to partner with is a critical first step in developing an inclusive, local hiring initiative. In some cases, an institution or several institutions have helped to incubate a workforce intermediary organization when one did not exist that met their specific needs. Intermediaries bring many assets and resources to the table that can make existing institutional hiring processes more time efficient, targeted, and, effective. Intermediaries reduce time spent on recruitment and onboarding and heighten access to high-quality applicants who have already received tailored training. Moreover, intermediaries help address strategic goals. For example, they can help to increase diversity and community engagement by virtue of the populations and communities they work with. Intermediaries often have existing funding streams that can be leveraged to train candidates for high turnover, or hard-to-fill, positions.
All that said, without active engagement with larger employers, an intermediary’s impact is often limited. Since, without partnership with employers, they cannot adequately plan for specific job availabilities and employment needs. Much of the investment for workforce development required from the health system is in-kind—use of space, access to data, staff time for training and interviews, and adjustments to internal practices. These relatively low-cost investments can bolster existing workforce development programming, and, in turn, make the recruitment process more efficient and increase long-term employee retention.
What is a workforce intermediary?
A workforce intermediary is an organization that helps connect residents to jobs through training, access to employment opportunities, and other wrap-around support. A recent publication from the Aspen Institute on sector-based workforce approaches defined intermediaries as “organizational homes” that can “broker resources and services to improve how workers and employers come together in their regional labor markets.”1Maureen Conway and Robert P. Giloth, eds., Connecting People to Work: Workforce Intermediaries and Sector Strategies (Washington DC: Aspen Institute, April 2014), 5. This organizational home can take many forms. Intermediaries can be public agencies, welfare-to-work programs, nonprofits focused on job placement, community-based organizations focused on serving particular populations—such as re-entry or refugee communities—educational and training organizations, union apprenticeship programs, or other workforce training partners.2Conway, Connecting People to Work, 5
While the make-up and structure of organizations might vary, successful intermediaries can bring the following resources to the table:
- Credibility and knowledge of the community;
- Access to data, funding streams, and training resources;
- Time and staffing to recruit, screen, and train candidates prior to application at the institution;
- Ability to reduce training costs through cohort models with multiple employers.
Benefits of intermediary partnerships
Credibility and knowledge of the community
Workforce intermediaries are often embedded in the community and work directly with grassroots community-based organizations. They often have a network they can recruit from and a better reputation in the community than area employers. (Institutions may need to identify community-based organizations that target the specific geography or demographic of interest, since some intermediaries pull from a broad network.) Perhaps most importantly, intermediaries are positioned to connect with a wide array of employers, working with additional employers to support trainings when necessary, which can help scale impact. This also allows them to sustain engagement, even when individuals are not successful at getting a particular job. For instance, if during a training it becomes apparent that a candidate would not fit in a healthcare environment, the intermediary can still connect them to another sector.
The intake and sorting process at New Haven Works (NHW), a workforce intermediary in New Haven, Connecticut, is a great example of this benefit. Yale University and Yale-New Haven Hospital are two of the major employers that work with NHW to place local residents, and they have collaboratively developed specific systems to sort individuals based on their compatibility with jobs. Through a close partnership with Yale’s Human Resources Department, NHW developed guidelines outlining the skillsets and qualities hiring managers look for when hiring for specific positions. Upon intake, candidates are vetted to determine if they are a good match for Yale jobs; this process assesses for their current eligibility for open positions or whether they would be good candidates for training into those positions. In the case that a candidate is not currently eligible, NHW coaches candidates through the identification and pursuit of other employment opportunities.
Another important process at NHW is a “Meet and Greet,” a monthly event that provides opportunities for qualified local candidates to meet directly with Yale’s human resource recruiting team. Meet and greet events allow candidates to gain interview experience and create personal connections with recruiters. After the event, employers give NHW staff feedback on individual candidates, which offers them the opportunity to work with recruiters to identify realistic strategies for each candidate to secure permanent employment. Since NHW has relationships with multiple employers, if a candidate is not able to secure work at Yale, coaches can navigate them to opportunities with other employers. This ensures that NHW is able to serve a broader population than if they just worked with one or two employers.3Boris Sigal, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, New Haven, CT, April 1, 2016, notes.
Access to data, funding streams, and training resources
Workforce intermediaries have the infrastructure and staffing to apply for grants, and often are resourced with streams of public or philanthropic funding. Intermediaries can bring resources to the table from planning grants, demonstration grants, or citywide job initiatives. These funds can in turn be used for more efficient programming that will benefit both the community and the institution. Hospital human resource staff might not have the capacity to search for external funding, or the ability to offer trainings at the scale needed to demonstrate impact. Intermediaries bring the expertise necessary to make programs successful. Intermediaries staff job coaches, sector-specific trainers, and other positions that are critical to program success. Since these positions would exist regardless, partnerships can increase the efficiency of programming and provide health systems with the added benefit of outside expertise and staffing.
Workforce intermediaries often receive funding to conduct research on workforce trends and develop sector-specific training strategies. This research can be an important resource for hospital human resource departments. Dr. Cinda Herndon-King, director of Atlanta CareerRise based in Atlanta, Georgia, emphasizes that the workforce intermediary helps to track outcomes and employer and community benefits. As she explains it: “We can track and calculate what effect a program has had on a cohort, an occupation, or community…it seems that many hospitals aren’t prepared to evaluate outcomes, either because of manpower or available data systems.”4Cinda Herndon-King and Helen Slaven, interview by Katie Parker, February 24, 2016, transcript. Project QUEST a workforce intermediary based in San Antonio, Texas, provides a similar function. Executive director Sister Pearl Caesar described their role: “we identify in-demand occupations, recruit people who have a high school diploma or a GED, and then move those people into the training for those high-demand occupations that pay a living wage.” Project QUEST invests the resources to research job and training needs and applies findings to program design, which in turn produces a more qualified applicant pool for area anchor institutions.5Pearl Caesar, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, November 30, 2015, transcript.
Working with a workforce intermediary helps to leverage funding already allocated to training efforts, allowing hospitals to benefit from philanthropic and public expenditures. “Having healthcare organizations understand that there’s outside funding for these things, and how to leverage that, to me that’s a huge opportunity,” explained Helen Slaven, healthcare industry partnership consultant at Atlanta CareerRise.6Cinda Herndon-King and Helen Slaven interview. Intermediaries are able to bring philanthropic and public funding to the table. For example, the Health Careers Collaborative of Greater Cincinnati, a sector-specific workforce development effort linking multiple anchor institutions, channeled funding from the National Fund for Workforce Solutions, United Way of Greater Cincinnati, and the Department of Labor (among other funding sources) to workforce training initiatives.7Sharron DiMario, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, December 3, 2015, transcript.
Time and staffing to recruit, screen, and train candidates prior to application at the institution
The candidates put forth by intermediaries have already gone through a separate application process and training. Staff has screened each candidate and coaches can share their experiences working and interacting with them on a consistent basis. This in-depth knowledge of a candidate is more than a recruiter or hiring manager would learn from an online job application. Thus, intermediaries can help to reduce risk in hiring decisions, as they are able to put forth candidates that have demonstrated commitment, engagement, and skill.
Ability to reduce training costs through cohort models with multiple employers
Sometimes, high-need positions do not necessarily correspond to high-volume positions. In these instances, it might not be worth it for an individual institution to invest resources in a training program. However, an intermediary that works with multiple partners could bring together an entire cohort to train for a particular position category, thus lowering the cost per participant. Cohort models ensure a steady stream of applicants, even if there are fluctuations in individual institution hiring.
Cohort training model targeted at specific positions
Cohort training models function by training a group of participants around a specific curriculum. This enables efficient use of training resources, facilitates peer learning, and ensures that training programming produces results at a scale that can have impact on the hiring needs of the health system. With the cohort curriculum focused on specific high-need positions, cohort participants are trained for specific open positions, thus making the time invested into training worthwhile. This model also offers hiring departments a qualified pool of applicants, which allows them to fill more jobs and save on recruitment resources. All six case studies profiled in this toolkit use a cohort model for their pipeline programs, indicating the strong value placed on this model.
Cohort setup & design
“It’s a closed door center by design. We recruit for specific cohorts, train to a specific job, for a specific employer, and then move on to the next cohort,” explained Sheila Ireland, vice president for workforce solutions at the West Philadelphia Skills Initiative (WPSI) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The practice of designing specific cohorts around employer needs ensures that candidates receive training for skills that are actually in demand. In this model, curriculum is tailored to specific institutions and for specific job responsibilities. Job-specific training increases the value-added to institutions, as it enables them to target hard-to-fill or high-turnover positions that the traditional recruitment process is not designed to address.
The number of participants in a cohort varies by position type and number of participating institutions. However, according to Ireland, the ideal size of a cohort is at least fifteen since critical mass enables peer learning and active participation.8Sheila Ireland, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, March 30, 2016, transcript. Many of the other programs using a cohort model aim for at least fifteen participants as well. More specifically, the Alameda County EMS Corps in Alameda County, California recruits for cohorts of twenty-five and the Healthcare Bridge Program at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus (CU Anschutz) in Aurora, Colorado aims for twenty to twenty-five per cohort.9Michael Gibson, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, December 14, 2015, transcript; Robert McGranaghan, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, April 7, 2016, transcript. If a particular institution does not have a need for that many new hires, intermediaries can work with multiple anchors to reach scale, a practice utilized by WPSI and the Baltimore Alliance for Careers in Healthcare, of which Johns Hopkins University and Health System is a participant. Danielle Price, the director for community health engagement at University Hospitals (UH) in Cleveland, Ohio was previously the program coordinator at Neighborhood Connections, the community-based organization that recruits for UH’s workforce training program, Step Up to UH. Price explains that cohort size, and thus the size of the recruitment pool, is determined by the number of open positions: “for example, if a session will be training candidates for five vacancies and they’re in nutrition services, then we need to get fifty people who are interested in nutrition services for that particular round.”10Debbi Perkul and Danielle Price, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, Cleveland, OH, January 11, 2016, notes.
Paid internship programs with pathways to hire
Internship programs offer entry points into an institution’s workforce, help provide relevant work experience, and introduce candidates to a healthcare environment. Most importantly, they offer potential job seekers the opportunity to build relationships with hiring managers. Internship programs can target youth, create pipelines between local high schools and the hospital, or between community residents and the hospital. Temporary staffing departments can provide some of the same benefits of an internship program, since candidates receive on-the-job training. With additional supports, this can be an effective way to provide an entry point to the institution as well. However, all of these approaches must include a path to more permanent employment for them to be successful community pipeline strategies. Below we highlight a few examples:
High school internship programs
Internship programs for youth can help to build the future healthcare workforce and catalyze interest in healthcare careers. This can be critical to address skills shortages, especially in rural areas where recruitment is a pressing challenge. Moreover, high school internship programs provide young people with financial benefits. Participants are connected to paid part-time or summer work, and many programs offer college scholarships, and access to other forms of financial support.
Partners Healthcare (Partners), in Boston, Massachusetts utilizes this strategy, making youth pipelines a focus in their workforce development efforts. Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) operates the Student Success Jobs Program (SSJP), a year-round paid internship program for Boston Public Schools (BPS) high school students beginning in their sophomore year of high school and continuing through graduation. The program currently serves ninety-five students who are placed in internships in over sixty departments across BWH. Additionally, SSJP alumni enrolled in college and majoring in healthcare or science are eligible for summer employment; a recent survey showed that thirty alumni were employed at BWH or other Partners hospitals after college graduation. Along with career exposure, students receive coaching and educational support that extends past their internship and high school graduation. One of the SSJP’s core goals is to promote equity by offering employment opportunities and pathways to health and science careers in order to build a skilled and diverse workforce that reflects the local community. And the program is reaching this goal: 96 percent of participants are young people of color and the large majority are low income. BWH operates SSJP in partnership with eight BPS high schools in recognition that BPS students need access to college preparation and mentorship opportunities.
At Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), the primary focus of the program is on educational attainment. The MGH Youth Scholars Program is a four-year intensive afterschool STEM and college preparatory program that utilizes MGH as a learning lab, providing high school students with hands-on experiential opportunities throughout the hospital. Additionally, the program supports students through the college search process by providing help with college essay writing, SAT prep, financial aid, tutoring, academic coaching, and summer employment. MGH sees the program not only as a workforce development initiative but also as a community health improvement strategy, since educational attainment is highly correlated with economic status, an important social determinant of health.
Both of these programs are also linked to financial support for educational attainment through the Partners Community Scholarship Foundation. Established in 2012, the Foundation was created to provide students participating in the BWH and MGH youth programs with academic support services and up to $5,000 per student per year in college scholarship funds. Prior to entering college, students receive academic tutoring, SAT exam preparation, mentoring, and summer employment opportunities. Partners has committed ten million dollars over ten years to support 450 Boston Public School students participating in the BWH and MGH youth programs.
Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio leveraged their existing internship program for their community transformation efforts. Initially, it was a program for top-performing high school students interested in scientific research, and had been in place for nearly a decade. Many of the participants were children of doctors or researchers at the clinic. Over time, Cleveland Clinic leadership began to question whether the internship program could be leveraged for greater impact and be tied to the Greater University Circle initiative, an anchor partnership aimed at economic revitalization in specific high-poverty neighborhoods. The Clinic partnered with Youth Opportunities Unlimited, a local community organization, to create a summer internship program specifically for young people in low-income communities. The new internship, a joint initiative of Community Relations and Human Resources, aims to connect low-income youth to summer jobs, while providing mentorship, skills training, and, ultimately, a career pathway.
During the internship, interns are placed in jobs at the hospital during a nine-week training period. Monday through Thursday they spend on job training, and Friday they work on professional development and life skills. In order to make the program more inclusive, the Cleveland Clinic shifted the GPA requirements from 3.5 to 2.5 and expanded the types of jobs covered. Interns are paid $8.50 an hour, which is above minimum wage. In addition, interns receive additional supports such as bus tickets, lunch vouchers, and extra uniforms. Although it is still in its pilot stages, the goal of the program is to begin when the youth are sophomores, have them back each year for three years and then get them certified and hired after they graduate from high school. The internship itself is only for the summer, but the participants receive continued mentorship all year. The jobs included in the internship program were selected after a grant-funded study to project labor force needs over the next ten years. This data-backed approach will help to create pathways to hire by training interns for positions that will have demand in the future.11Hermione Malone and Christine Foley, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, Cleveland, OH, January 12, 2016, notes.
Kaiser Permanente (KP) has utilized similar design principles in the creation of an internship program in Baltimore, Maryland. KP recognizes the powerful role that connecting youth to pathways to employment plays in their broader community development efforts and specifically designed the internship program for youth from low-income families. Youth are paid an hourly wage and receive additional supports such as bus passes, which help to enable participation in the program. Interns receive on-the-job training, mentorship and coaching, and access to scholarship programs to pursue careers in healthcare. The External Affairs and Community Benefit Departments are currently working with a local technical high school to develop a pathway program for students to receive associate degrees in allied health professions (such as radiology) linked to high-need jobs at the institution. In the near future a full-time staff person will be hired to coordinate the program.12Maritha Gay, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, April 21, 2016, transcript.
Internship programs can also be important recruitment tools. At Central Valley Medical Center in Nephi, Utah, recruiting employees remains a pressing challenge because of the rural location (many graduates of nursing programs in Utah are drawn to city hospitals). As a solution, Central Valley tries to connect high school students who might be looking for opportunities to stay in their hometown to career pipelines. They work to identify youth interested in staying in the area and in medical careers, and then connect them to their Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) training program, and then to nursing training programs. The internship program is a joint effort between Central Valley’s Human Resources department and the high school. Students work at the hospital for the duration of a class period up to three days a week during the semester. The focus of the program is to expose students to different career options within the medical field and connect them to a career pathway within the institution.13Randy Allinson and Heidi McKay Kelso, interview by Katie Parker, February 22, 2016, transcript.
Another take on a youth internship program is hosting a camp. Camps provide young people with an introduction to the healthcare field and spark interest in healthcare jobs. They often concentrate training into the span of a week, which helps to reduce staffing and space investments. An example of this model is the Scrubs Camp, developed at Winona State University, located in Southeastern Minnesota. Initially conceived of to connect first generation college students to a college environment, Scrubs Camp has since partnered with Healthforce Minnesota and expanded to sixteen sites across the state. Camps all receive technical support from Healthforce Minnesota, with a full time staff member acting as a “consultant” to a local planning committee. For tools and templates related to establishing a Scrubs Camp, see HealthForce Minnesota’s website. 14Misun Bormann, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, January 26, 2016, notes;For tools and templates related to establishing a Scrubs Camp, see: www.healthforceminnesota.org/scrubs-start-a-camp/
Although they focus on introducing youth to healthcare careers and college environments, Scrubs Camps also provide an entry point to the employer partners. Laura Beeth, system director of talent acquisition at Fairview Health Services (Fairview) in Minneapolis, described how Scrubs Camp is part of their network of pipeline and career ladders: “Scrubs Camps have introduced middle and high school students to healthcare careers. Fairview provides numerous camp scholarships to students who are unable to pay.” Scrubs Camps are part of a wider network of internship and part-time work opportunities that help connect individuals to career pathways. Fairview also provides paid summer internships for high school students, summer nurse interns, and professional college internships in information technologies and communications. In total, Fairview provides approximately one hundred paid internships that range from high school summer experiences to year around graduate level fellowships. In addition, they support Central Corridor Fellows, a “fellows” program for metro area community college and university students. Explaining the impact of this program, Beeth said: “Last year Fairview provided twenty-five jobs to these fellows; our goal this year is to employ at least fifty to one hundred fellows. When these students land a job, results have shown the fellows are more likely to succeed in school and make better wages. The program also helps to increase our diversity demographics. Once the fellows complete their community college program, they are able to move into higher level jobs with benefits, so they can access tuition reimbursement as they gain higher credentials on their career pathway.”15Laura Beeth, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, January 26, 2016, notes.
Community resident internship programs
Internships for community residents can be more targeted towards career pipelines than youth programs, since individuals are less likely to move towards full-time post secondary education. Internship programs create job-shadowing programs, allow residents to gain exposure to a healthcare setting, and connect them to individual department and hiring managers. In addition, internships have the dual benefit of providing training while filling labor needs at the institution. Institutions such as Johns Hopkins University and Health System have taken advantage of this by utilizing internships to fill position time vacated by their staff pursuing internal career development training.16Yariela Kerr-Donovan, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, January 7, 2016, Baltimore, MD, transcript. Interns become accustomed to the norms and expectations of the institution, which then reduces the cost of onboarding and training if they are hired to work full time.
Internship programs tend to be used in welfare-to-work models of employment training. University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) has one such program that connects people on public assistance to training and internship programs. During the course of the ten-week training, individuals receive public assistance, then, during the four-month long internship they are paid wages. An important component of the program is that the internships are tied to pathways for advancement within the institution. Damon Lew, assistant director of community relations at UCSF, explained that being at such a large institution facilitated this career ladder. During internships, participants received $17 an hour, but the next full-time position makes $21-22 an hour. The internships are specific to each particular department and interns learn specific skills, such as proprietary software, which helps them to move up in the department. “When people come into their internships, the department welcomes them and finds ways to make them a vital cog…they are not just filing paperwork,” explained Lew.17Damon Lew, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, December 11, 2015, transcript; For more information, see: www.ucsf.edu/about/cgr/current-projects/workforce
Johns Hopkins University and Health System (Johns Hopkins) has also developed an internship program for individuals who receive state assistance. The program is a partnership between the Baltimore City Department of Social Services, the Center for Urban Families, and the Johns Hopkins’s General Services Department. A notable component of the program is that it introduces participants to multiple departments. More specifically, over the twenty-week program individuals work in environmental services, linens, patient transport, materials management, and nutrition. After the program, interns are eligible to apply for full-time employment within these departments. Interns also receive frontline worker certification credentials to demonstrate their skill acquisition. In 2013, all interns who completed the program accepted offers of full-time employment at the hospital.18Kristian Hayes, Tryain Young, and Ayisha Dyson, “The Case for National Certification for Frontline Healthcare Workers,” Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of General Services.
Just like with youth programs, camp models that provide intensive job readiness training have also been developed for community residents. One example is RWJBarnabas Health’s Employment Ready “Boot Camp” at Newark Medical Center/Children’s Hospital of New Jersey. RWJBarnabas Health (Barnabas), the largest integrated healthcare system in New Jersey, operates the camp at NBIMC, its hospital in Newark. Before the program launched, Barnabas funded program development and hired a minority-owned firm to conduct interviewers with residents and employer partners. The program is now tied to a citywide economic development effort, and brings in other employers in Newark. Each participating employer is asked to hire five of the fifteen program participants. While initial funding came from Barnabas, the hope is that generation sponsorship will come from other corporate partners and that employer partners will be able to leverage available tax credits to help fund the program. The camp is built on a five-week module that includes visits to each employment site, a community service project, a soft skills development segment, and post-employment coaching.19Michellene Davis, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, Newark, NJ, January 28 2016; “Mayor’s Office Update for Hire Newark ‘Employment Ready Boot Camp,’” Presentation by V. Randolph Brown Consulting, Newark, NJ, January 25, 2016.
Best practices for setting up a local hiring pipeline
- Designate geographic focus in high-poverty neighborhoods
- Work with residents with the greatest barriers to employment
- Focus on jobs with clear career pathways ...
Tools to sustain local hiring efforts
- Foster collaboration between human resources and community health departments
- Connect forecasting, training, and hiring departments
- Connect to health system diversity...
Success factors for workforce partners
- Offer wrap around supports and soft skills training
- Function in a hub/navigator role
- Work with a network of multiple employers
References [ + ]
|1.||↑||Maureen Conway and Robert P. Giloth, eds., Connecting People to Work: Workforce Intermediaries and Sector Strategies (Washington DC: Aspen Institute, April 2014), 5.|
|2.||↑||Conway, Connecting People to Work, 5|
|3.||↑||Boris Sigal, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, New Haven, CT, April 1, 2016, notes.|
|4.||↑||Cinda Herndon-King and Helen Slaven, interview by Katie Parker, February 24, 2016, transcript.|
|5.||↑||Pearl Caesar, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, November 30, 2015, transcript.|
|6.||↑||Cinda Herndon-King and Helen Slaven interview.|
|7.||↑||Sharron DiMario, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, December 3, 2015, transcript.|
|8.||↑||Sheila Ireland, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, March 30, 2016, transcript.|
|9.||↑||Michael Gibson, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, December 14, 2015, transcript; Robert McGranaghan, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, April 7, 2016, transcript.|
|10.||↑||Debbi Perkul and Danielle Price, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, Cleveland, OH, January 11, 2016, notes.|
|11.||↑||Hermione Malone and Christine Foley, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, Cleveland, OH, January 12, 2016, notes.|
|12.||↑||Maritha Gay, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, April 21, 2016, transcript.|
|13.||↑||Randy Allinson and Heidi McKay Kelso, interview by Katie Parker, February 22, 2016, transcript.|
|14.||↑||Misun Bormann, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, January 26, 2016, notes;For tools and templates related to establishing a Scrubs Camp, see: www.healthforceminnesota.org/scrubs-start-a-camp/|
|15.||↑||Laura Beeth, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, January 26, 2016, notes.|
|16.||↑||Yariela Kerr-Donovan, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, January 7, 2016, Baltimore, MD, transcript.|
|17.||↑||Damon Lew, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, December 11, 2015, transcript; For more information, see: www.ucsf.edu/about/cgr/current-projects/workforce|
|18.||↑||Kristian Hayes, Tryain Young, and Ayisha Dyson, “The Case for National Certification for Frontline Healthcare Workers,” Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of General Services.|
|19.||↑||Michellene Davis, interview by David Zuckerman and Katie Parker, Newark, NJ, January 28 2016; “Mayor’s Office Update for Hire Newark ‘Employment Ready Boot Camp,’” Presentation by V. Randolph Brown Consulting, Newark, NJ, January 25, 2016.|